Kleidung in der Antike
Ancient civilizations such as Greece and Rome preferred broad, unsewn fabric panels from which to construct their clothing (cloth was expensive and they did not want to cut it). The ancient Greek clothing consisted of rectangular wool or linen cloths, which were attached to the shoulders with decorated pins and provided with a belt. Women wore a loose robe called peplos, men a cloak called Chlamys, while men and women wore chiton – a kind of tunic that was shorter in men and shorter in women and longer in women.
The toga of ancient Rome, which was worn by free Roman citizens, was also an unbounded length of wool cloth. Underneath the toga, they wore a simple tunic made up of two simple rectangles joined at the shoulders and sides. Roman women wore the draped stole or a tunic that was long to the ground.
During the Iron Age, from 1200 BC. Women in northwestern Europe wore wool dresses, tunics and skirts that were fixed with leather belts and metal brooches or lapel pins until around 500 AD. Men wore breeches with leg wrap for protection and long pants. They also wore animal hide caps and scarves and soft leather lace-up shoes.
In the Middle Ages, the Byzantines made and exported very richly patterned fabrics. Expensive variants were woven and embroidered while being cheaper, designed for the lower classes, resist-dyed and printed. They wore tunics or long chitons over which they wore Dalmatika, a heavier and shorter style of tunic or long coats.
At the same time, the appearance of European clothing depended on whether the bearers identify with the ancient Romanized population or whether the new invaders are Franks, Anglo-Saxons or Visigoths. Men of the invading nations wore short tunics with belts and visible pants, tubes or leggings. In the 12th and 13th centuries, European clothing remained simple. In the 13th century, the dyeing and processing of wool improves and the crusaders bring along silk crafts. The fashion begins in Europe in the 14th century.
In the renaissance of Europe, wool remained the most popular fabric for all classes, but also linen and hemp were used. More complex clothing was created and the urban middle class joins in with fashion defined by higher classes and royalties. The early modern Europe of the 16th century shows an even more complex fashion with ruffles, passement series and pinstripes. The Enlightenment introduces two types of clothing: „full dress“, which is worn at the court and on formal occasions, and „undressing“, that is everyday clothing during the day. By the end of the 18th century, the full clothing disappeared almost completely.
The Industrial Revolution brings machines that spin, weave and sew, producing fabrics of better quality, faster production and lower prices. The production shifts from small metallurgical production to materials with assembly lines.
The 20th century invents synthetic fibers that are cheaper than natural fibers and mixed with many natural fibers.
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